Inscription and Jatinga Ramasvara Temple
A rock inscription of Asoka, comprising Minor Rock-edicts I and II, has been found here. The edict is inscribed on an irregular surface of rock, facing north-east. The floor on which the inscription is incised is in front of the steps leading to the Jatinga Ramesvara temple. The edict has 28 lines covering a space of 5.33 x 1.97 m. The edict refers to the message issued in the name of Devanampriya and contains the greetings of the prince (Aryaputra) to the Mahamatras. It is in Brahmi script of third Century B.C. The edict is exactly similar to the one at Brahmagiri, six km away. The temple of Jatinga Ramesvara, was originally a brick structure. Later converted into a stone temple and repaired in 962 AD.
Inscription carved on a pillar set up in front of the Shiva temple, is much damaged inscription refers itself to the reign of Trailokya Malladeva and after eulogising his Queen Mailaladevi, introduces a Mahamandaleshwara (whose name is lost). It then states that a chief entitled Bhavanagandavarana constructed several temples, mathas, tanks, etc. At Kalyana the capital of the Chalukya Chakravarthi, the rajadhani Annigeri, Mulgunda (Kolvu), Nandapura, Kohalli Mandaligeri, Galgali, Rajadhani Banavasepura, Karividi, Navale, Nandavadigi and Peruru and renovated the Tribhuvanatilaka – Jinalaya, Mahasrimantha Basti, etc. At Ponnugunda, Veerajinalaya at Purgur and a Jinalaya at Kundarge. The inscription registers a gift of land made apparently by this chief to the Pipers, Songsters etc. On the occasion of the Uttarayana Sankaranti in the month of pushya. The details of the date are lost. It is not known who this Bhavanagandavarana was?
The villages, where the temples were erected are scattered over a wide territory of the Chalukya empire. The name of the (temple) at Annigeri called Cholamgonda-Traipurushadeva is noteworthy.
Another inscription is at the top of the entrance in the central shrine of the Mukadeva temple. The inscription is dated in Saka (8) 22, Dundbhi Magho su (V), Thursday, Uttarashadha, Siddhiyoga (C.E 903) and belongs to the reign of (Akalavasudeva) Krishna-II. It records the installation of a God (name lost) and a grant of land.
Basadis and Inscriptions
Humcha also called a Pattipomburchhapura in inscriptions was the stronghold of the Kadambas of Banavasi (3rd -6th centuries AD) and Chalukyas of Badami (5th- 8th centuries AD). Later, it became the capital of the Santara and the principality came to known as Santalige-1000. Humcha, the chief town in Santalige-1000 was an important centre of Jainism. In about 1209 AD, the Santaras shifted their capital to Kalasa in Chikmagalur district. The temple Pancha Basti, described as Urvi-tilakam (glory of the world) is situated at the foot of the Billeshvara hill and was built in the Chalukyan style by chattadevi, wife of Kaduvetti, a Pallava chief. Facing east, it consists of five cells all in a row with a common navaranga, mahamandapa, an open mukhamandapa constructed in 1077 AD. There is a cloister (verandah) all round the temple. In front of the main structure and few feet away on either side of it are two small shrines dedicated to Parsvanatha (north) and Bahubali (south) and the whole is enclosed by a compound with a mahadvara. Between the mahadwara and the main building is a small mandapa and a manastambha, which is a magnificent monolithic pillar with elegant carvings. The pillars stand on a high platform rising in three tiers. The bottommost one has four elephants at the four corners and four more at the cardinal points. Lions in different postures are carved in between these elephants. There is a small pavilion surrounding the pillar with a seated figure facing each of the four directions. On the whole, the manastambha is very elegant and is proportionate from top to bottom.There are three images in the cells of the basti mainly, Chandranatha, Santinatha and Parsvanatha. The image of Parsvanatha is interesting wherein just at the periphery of snake coils the personified manovikaras attracting the tirthankaras are depicted. The navaranga consists of ten ankanaswith three doors and the images of Jwalamalini Yakshas and Yakshinis are kept in it.